The national flag The National Flag shall be divided vertically into three equal parts colored red, blue and red. The three stripes, of identical width, shall be blue for the eternal sky in the middle, and red, the symbol of progress and prosperity, for the two stripes on either side. The Golden Soyombo shall be depicted in the centre of the red stripe nearest to the flag pole. The ratio of the width to length of the Flag shall be 1:2.
Mongolia has taken a rapid, very positive development and been a stable democratic state for over twenty years. The country has made great progress in its transition to a market-based system since 1990. Until then, the economy was based on the strict centrally-planned model adopted almost sixty years earlier. The government launched a series of reforms from 1991, which included a phased liberalization of state controlled prices and tariffs; privatization of state-owned enterprises; and establishment of a two-tier banking system. All sectors of the Mongolian economy are open to foreign investors and foreign investment is protected from nationalization and expropriation. The country is developing policies on responsible mining, renewable energy and ecotourism that place it on a green development path.
Climate change and intensification of negative impacts from human activities caused an increase in environmental pollution, nature degradation, depletion of natural resources, and a rise in the number of threatened and endangered animals and plants species. For example, the air temperature in Mongolia become warmer by +2.1 C degrees in 2010 and about 70 percent of Mongolia’s territory has been affected by desertification processes to some degree. Also, around 5,000 rivers, streams, springs, sources and ponds have dried-up threatening animals and plants with extinction. For this reason, the Mongolian Red Book was updated to protect threatened and endangered animals and plant species
Mongolian customs and traditions have grown as part of the development of central Asian nomadic civilization, passed down from generation to generation. They involve psychology, ethics, science, education, religion and family relationships. As in any other nation, Mongolian customs and traditions have their own specific distinguishing features.Mongolians have always considered childrearing and education to be the primary consideration. There is indeed a language association: the Mongolian word humuujil, meaning to educate, to bring up, is related to the words humuun, meaning human, and humuuniig hun bolgoh, meaning to make a man. Along with a healthy physical upbringing, much attention was traditionally paid to the intellectual and ethical development of a child, even before birth. It was strictly forbidden to frighten a pregnant woman, to make her unhappy or to make her do hard labour. It was also forbidden to pass a pregnant woman when walking, to swear in her presence, or even to speak in a loud voice. Such traditions came from the deep respect given to the unborn child, who might one day become an intellectual, a statesman, or just a faithful person to his family and community. The Mongol saying ‘Holiig ni doroond garyg ganzagand’ translates literally as ‘make the child’s legs reach the stirrups and hands reach the reins.’ This means that the child must grow physically able to help his parents and relatives. Children were told tales and legends, riddles and proverbs, and taught to respect parents, siblings, older people and strangers. Parents also carefully watched how the child learned and behaved, encouraging what they saw as good and condemning what they saw as bad. Children were taught to tend young animals, water horses, collect dried dung, and milk cows from a young age. For healthy growth, children were taught the dangers both of over-eating or being hungry, in addition to good manners. Particular attention was paid to toys and games to help intellectual growth, and Mongolians love to play simple games with children, such as guessing the number of shagai (lamb’s ankle bones) held in the fist; setting the alag melkhii (multicolored frog); anklebone shooting; and shagai shuurekh.
Mongolia is not entirely homogeneous with respect to ethnicity and religion. Nearly 90% of the population is Mongols, among whom the Khalky-Mongols are the largest subgroup (about 75% of the total). The next largest group is the Kazakhs (5.3%) who live predominantly in the far west. More recently, they have begun migrating in large numbers to the Kazakhstan. There are also other smaller ethnic groups including Tuvins, Uzbeks Uighurs, Russians, Chinese and others. The national language is Mongolian. Mongolian population density is 1.9 people per square kilometers making it one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world.
In the early days of Mongolian history, education was primarily provided by the religious and royal institutions. Buddhist monks gave basic education to boys in classes set up within the compounds of monasteries, while children of the royal household and from families of the nobility were educated in order to serve in the court and be hereditary. After the victory of 1921 People’s Revolution was increased recognition of the need for educated people for the development of the country. As a result, the Mongolian education system was modernized and made more accessible to the general public. It| was strongly influenced by the former Soviet Union system and in which two educational paths were stipulated: the academic and the vocational Before socialism in Mongolia, literacy was widespread in monasteries and for government officials. Informal skills were learnt at home and passed on through the family. Some children were taught a language to communicate with neighboring countries or were taught to recite Buddhist texts. Formal education was exclusive and selective.
Mongolia is a parliamentary democracy, based on universal suffrage. In the early 1990s, Mongolia abolished the old political and social system and installed a democratic one. As a nation with a long tradition of statehood, Mongolia has been steadily working towards a free market economy. Mongolia has applied a model of the world’s developed countries with democratic legislatures, whilst considering its own specific features and traditions. The new Constitution of Mongolia came into effect on February 12, 1992 and amended 1999, 2001.
Prehistory and antiquity
Traces of the early inhabitants Archaeological finds have confirmed that almost the entire territory of Mongolia was settled in prehistoric times. From the 1920s, archaeological excavations around Mongolia unearthed many interesting and important sites, a large number of them prehistoric. Of particular interest are settlements with graves and semi-subterranean dwellings near the town of Choibalsan, Dornod Aimag, the eastern province of Mongolia, and finds in the area around Bayanzag, Omnogobi Aimag, the southern province. These were discovered in the 1920s by the third Central Asiatic Expedition led by American Roy Chapman Andrews. Excavations of these settlements and graves showed that the bodies were interred in a seated position in narrow pits, with bone knives and pearl beads. Human traces from the middle and later Paleolithic periods have also been found in many regions of Mongolia, particularly in the Moiltyn valley, on the river Orkhon near Kharkhorin, the ancient capital, as well as in the valleys of the Selenge, Tuul and Kherlen rivers, deep in the Gobi and on the steppes of the Mongol Altai. A wonderful monument of primitive culture–cave paintings of Khoit Tsenkher, in Khovd Aimag, 1,200km west of Ulaanbaatar, bear witness to the high level of intellectual development of people in Mongolia of that period. A large number of bronze implements, decorations and household utensils found in these places are on display at the Natural History Museum, evidence that this country was a cradle of Asian civilization. About the same time that iron weapons began to appear, in the third century BC, inhabitants of Mongolia began to form tribal alliances and to threaten China. The archaeological evidence indicates that the area that is now Mongolia was populated as early as 500,000 years ago.
“Mongolia is on the same level as developed countries for its development of IT and communications sector”
“InvesCore’s achievements will serve as a stepping stone for many more Mongolian companies to enter the foreign market”
B.Turmunkh: I illustrated 60 pieces for the updated version of ‘The Secret History of Mongols’